Before discussing about pond management we have to know what is a pond? Generally a pond means a small collection of still water. The pond is seen almost all areas of the world. It is mostly seen in the village area. Some are also found in city area. People use the pond for different purposes. Most of those pond are used for fish cultivation. Almost all types of freshwater and saltwater fish for ponds are cultivated in the ponds. Successful fish farming depends on the pond ecosystem. The source of water can be a river, lake or other natural way like rain water and underground water.
Water source can be different but it have to have the facilities of changing weekly or monthly. It would be better if it has the facilities of replacing after every two to three months. For highest fish production the pond water should change or replace only when it would lost from evaporation or seepage. If the farmer change the whole water of the pond more and more it will reduce his production. The pond can be different sized. It can be a small one or a pond of numerous hectares. Small pond design are made for meet up family animal protein supply or consumption. On the other hand the larger pond are made for commercial purposes. But a pond of giant size is not suitable for well maintenance. Before pond construction you should keep in mind about the pond culture, pond design, pond management and the pond supplies system.
Natural resources, condition, weather and available equipment are the main thing to look before build a pond. The farmer should build a pond where the land is situated with a gentle slope. The pond may be square or rectangular but you have to make sure that it will be free from entering water from other source and the water will never go out. The water label of the pond will always be same according to the species of the fish and it will be better if there is a resource of water where sufficient water is available all time. The pond also have to be well drained to remove all water while collecting the fish. The shore of the pond should wide enough for reducing the erosion problem.
For preventing your pond fish from the thief, you should construct the pond near your residence as much as possible. The another way to keep your fish free from being theft, keep bamboo poles or tree branches with thorns in the pond, it will make impossible to collect fish with net. The bamboo poles and tree branches will not only prevent the fish from being theft but also it will serve the fish some extra natural foods. This system is generally known as periphyton based fish cultivation.
Do not build a pond where the minnow is rare. The pond plants must have to be maximum. Pond plants reduces the food cost of fish cultivation. The pond ecosystem will be fish cultivation friendly. It will be free from all types of ammonia gas and full supply of oxygen. Different types of ducks can be raised in the pond and it will make sufficient oxygen supply for the fish.
Before build a pond you have to give attention in some subject. What should you do before contracting a pond are described below.
Size of the Pond
The size of the pond depends on your farming type. If you want to cultivate fish to meet up your family needs, you can start in a small pond design. If you want to cultivate fish commercially you have to make a large one. The pond can be both square and rectangular sized. Square and rectangular sized pond are easy to build. A pond with an area of 250-300 square meter is best for family used fish pond. In commercial purposes the pond size can be any. The size of the pond should be right that which you can easily maintain.
The water depth will be 30% in one corner and 100% in another corner. Depth of the water depends on the species of fish you are cultivating. The depth of the pond can be more if you want to use it for reserving water for the dry season. What ever the depth of the pond can be but it have to have the well facilities of draining. A well drained pond is suitable for collecting fish.
Pond constructing process is the most difficult and expensive way of fish farming. A pond should construct well because it is a long deposit and a pond can be used for several years. So, think more and more before building a pond.
- Select a suitable place for making the pond.
- Determine the appropriate area of the pond.
- Make the shore of the pond strong.
- It would be better if there are no big tree near the pond.
- Make an inlet and outlet path.
- Make the pond fertilized before releasing minnow there.
- Build the pond near your residence.
- Stock minnow according to the area of your pond.
- Make the pond where at least one natural water source is available around the year.
- Determine the area of pond which you can easily maintain